Керченская крепость

Так уж случилось, что в Крыму во все времена проходило множество войн, соответственно, и крепостей было построено немало. Ныне широко известны Генуэзская крепость в Судаке, пещерные города-крепости и целая куча укреплений в Севастополе и окрестностях. Но это еще далеко не всё. Сегодня Крымонавт поведает о весьма масштабной, но не очень популярной крепости в городе-герое Керчи.

Сооружения крепости

Когда мы приехали в Керчь, про эту крепость вообще ничего не знали и не слышали. Как и положено, мы купили карту и отправились шататься по городу, однако весь центр, включая гору Митридат, руины Пантикапея и Храм Иоанна Предтечи были осмотрены часа за три. Надо было искать что-то новое. Аджимушкайские каменоломни на тот момент были закрыты для посещения, а крепость Ени-Кале находилась уж очень далеко.

От нечего делать полистали карту и наткнулись на местность, озаглавленную просто «Крепость», при чем её территория, судя по той же карте, была больше каменоломен и Ени-Кале вместе взятых, так что решили отправиться туда. Начали расспрашивать местных, но почти никто не смог нам сказать ни что это за крепость, ни как туда добраться. Только одна дама указала нам дорогу, но при этом категорически отговаривала от поездки, там, мол, военная часть и минное поле по периметру, и идти от остановки 3 км по открытому июльскому солнышку… Нас это не удержало.

Добравшись до нужной остановки, мы убедились в некоторой правдивости предостережений, ибо в нужном нам направлении была только одна дорога, военная бетонка, идущая прямиком через поле. Может, тогда и военные с минными полями прилагаются? Решили проверить. Прошагали поле, небольшой жилой массив, опять поле, никаких следов крепости, только какие-то холмики впереди. И только когда мы подошли в упор к этим самым «холмикам», стало понятно, что это вход в крепость. Весьма хорошо замаскировано, как то и полагается в военном деле.

Примерно так и устроена вся крепость.
Крепость Керчь

Оказалось, что никаких военных тут давно уже нет, а вся территория является музеем, посетить который можно только с экскурсией. Зная на деле, что из себя представляет большинство этих самых крымских экскурсий, мы утратили былой энтузиазм, однако посмотреть всё-таки хотелось, так что записались. И, стоит сказать, не зря! Тут не было никаких толп туристов (всего четыре человека), заученной речи типа «посмотрите направо», «что это вам напоминает?» и т. д., экскурсовод рассказывала всё весьма грамотно и «живо», отвечала на все вопросы, короче — ништяк.

Знатные развалины.
Руины

Теперь собственно немного о крепости: первые укрепления тут были построены в 1771 году, во времена завоевания Крыма Российской Империей. Однако во время Крымской войны укрепления захватили союзные войска (со стороны берега не было предусмотрено никаких оборонительных сооружений), и только после подписания Парижского мирного трактата 1856-го года здесь начались серьезные работы по усилению оборонительных возможностей. Основной задачей будущей крепости была защита Керченского пролива и, соответственно, Азовского моря от потенциальных недоброжелателей.

Вид на пролив и остров Тузла.
Вид на Тузлу

Самолично императором Александром II было принято решение допилить береговые укрепления до статуса крепости, что и было сделано в следующие 20 лет. Контролировал процесс постройки сам Э.И. Тотлебен. Идея была в следующем: сделать крепость так, чтобы ни с моря, ни с берега её нельзя было увидеть (в чем мы и убедились, пока шли туда). Так же, все бастионы, люнеты, казематы и погреба были соединены между собой подземными тоннелями, то бишь патернами, при чем все ходы были слегка искривлены, чтоб, в случае атаки, нападающим было тяжелее вести прицельную стрельбу.

Искривленные корридоры.
Искривленный коридор

Место расположения крепости, мыс Ак-Бурун, выбран тоже не просто так. Здесь расстояние между крымским берегом и о. Тузла всего-то 3 километра, а чтоб еще облегчить задачу крепости, наши ученые слегка наклонили земную ось коса острова была дополнительно насыпана. Таким образом, фарватер был перемещен еще ближе к берегу и проходил в пятиста метрах от батарей, то есть вполне достаточно, чтобы контролировать пролив даже для гладкоствольных орудий, которые тогда были на вооружении повсеместно. Так же, до недавнего времени, высочайшей точкой Керчи официально считалась гора Митридат (91 м), но мы-то знаем, что всё не так. На самом деле самая высокая точка находится именно на территории крепости и достигает 110 метров.

Наблюдательный пункт на самой высокой точке крепости.
Наблюдательный пункт на самой высокой точке

Керченская крепость была одной из основных в Крыму, но в 1905-м году её перевели в разряд крепостей-складов. В этой должности она находилась аж до 1941,но в Великую Отечественную стала одним из основных пунктов обороны Керчи и вообще Черноморского побережья. За годы войны крепость переходила от наших к фашистам и обратно четыре раза. После победы её снова оборудовали под арсенал.

Следы Великой Отечетсвенной

В 2002-м году вся территория перешла министерству культуры и превратилась в музей. Настоятельно рекомендую при случае наведаться, действительно есть на что посмотреть.

* * *

Говорят, сам император не погнушался!
Добротный клозет

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